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How to Ace Public Administration by Dr Sultan Khan 135: Tips and Tricks for CSS and PMS Exams



Public Administration by Dr Sultan Khan 135: A Comprehensive Guide for CSS and PMS Aspirants




Public administration is the study of how governments organize and manage their activities to achieve public goals. It is also the practice of implementing public policies through various administrative processes. Public administration is an important subject for candidates who are preparing for competitive exams such as CSS (Central Superior Services) and PMS (Provincial Management Services) in Pakistan. These exams test the candidates' knowledge and skills in various aspects of public administration such as organization theory, personnel management, financial management, administrative law, public policy, development administration, local government, and comparative public administration.




public administration by dr sultan khan 135



In this article, we will provide a comprehensive guide to one of the most popular books on public administration in Pakistan, namely Public Administration (CSS & PMS) by DR Sultan Khan. This book covers all the topics that are relevant for CSS and PMS exams in a concise and comprehensive manner. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each of which deals with a specific theme of public administration. We will summarize the main points of each chapter and provide some useful tips for exam preparation.


Dr Sultan Khan is a renowned scholar and teacher of public administration in Pakistan. He has a PhD in public administration from the University of Birmingham, UK. He has served as a professor and chairman of the Department of Public Administration at the University of Karachi. He has also been a visiting professor at various universities in Pakistan and abroad. He has written several books and articles on public administration, including Public Administration with Special Reference to Pakistan, which is considered a classic in the field.


The book Public Administration (CSS & PMS) by DR Sultan Khan is based on his extensive teaching and research experience. It is written in a simple and lucid style that makes it easy to understand and remember. The book also contains numerous examples, case studies, tables, diagrams, and charts that illustrate the concepts and theories of public administration. The book also provides questions and answers at the end of each chapter that help the students to test their learning and prepare for the exams.


Chapter 1: Conceptual Framework of Public Administration




The first chapter of the book introduces the basic concepts and framework of public administration. It covers the following topics:


  • Definition, scope, nature, and evolution of public administration: This section explains what public administration is, how it differs from private administration, what are its main functions and objectives, and how it has evolved over time from a traditional to a modern discipline.



  • Approaches and theories of public administration: This section discusses the various approaches and theories that have been developed to study and analyze public administration. These include the classical approach, the human relations approach, the behavioral approach, the systems approach, the contingency approach, the new public management approach, and the new public service approach.



  • Public administration in Pakistan: historical background and constitutional framework: This section provides an overview of the historical development and constitutional framework of public administration in Pakistan. It traces the origins of public administration in Pakistan from the colonial period to the present day. It also highlights the salient features of the constitution of Pakistan that relate to public administration, such as the parliamentary system, the federal system, the separation of powers, the rule of law, and the fundamental rights.



Chapter 2: Administrative Organization




The second chapter of the book deals with the topic of administrative organization. It covers the following topics:


  • Principles of organization: division of work, hierarchy, span of control, etc.: This section explains the basic principles that guide the design and structure of administrative organizations. These include the principles of division of work, hierarchy, span of control, unity of command, coordination, delegation, authority and responsibility, centralization and decentralization, and communication.



  • Types of organization: line, staff, functional, etc.: This section describes the different types of organization that are used in public administration. These include the line organization, the staff organization, the functional organization, the matrix organization, the project organization, and the network organization.



  • Organizational structure and design: formal and informal, centralized and decentralized, etc.: This section discusses how administrative organizations are structured and designed to achieve their goals and objectives. It examines the factors that influence organizational structure and design, such as size, technology, environment, strategy, culture, etc. It also compares and contrasts the formal and informal aspects of organization, as well as the centralized and decentralized modes of decision making.



Chapter 3: Bureaucracy and Civil Service




The third chapter of the book focuses on the topic of bureaucracy and civil service. It covers the following topics:


  • Concept and characteristics of bureaucracy: This section defines bureaucracy as a type of administrative organization that is characterized by rationality, efficiency, impersonality, hierarchy, specialization, rules, etc. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of bureaucracy, as well as its relevance for modern society.



  • Role and functions of civil service: This section explains what civil service is, how it differs from other types of public employees, what are its main roles and functions in public administration, such as policy formulation, policy implementation, policy evaluation, service delivery, etc.



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  • Civil service reforms in Pakistan: issues and challenges: This section analyzes the various issues and challenges that face civil service in Pakistan, such as politicization, corruption, nepotism, lack of merit, low performance, low morale, etc. It also reviews the various attempts and initiatives to reform civil service in Pakistan, such as the Pay and Services Reforms Commission (1973), the Civil Servants Act (1973), the National Commission for Government Reforms (2006), the National Finance Commission Award (2010), the Civil Service Reforms Committee (2018), etc. It also suggests some recommendations for improving civil service in Pakistan, such as depoliticizing civil service, ensuring merit-based recruitment and promotion, enhancing capacity building and training, introducing performance-based incentives and accountability, fostering a culture of innovation and excellence, etc.



Chapter 4: Personnel Administration




The fourth chapter of the book deals with the topic of personnel administration. It covers the following topics:


  • Personnel management: recruitment, selection, training, promotion, etc.: This section explains the various aspects of personnel management in public administration. It discusses how public employees are recruited, selected, trained, promoted, transferred, retired, etc. It also compares and contrasts the different methods and techniques of personnel management, such as examination, interview, seniority, merit, etc.



  • Performance appraisal and accountability: This section discusses how public employees are appraised and held accountable for their performance. It examines the objectives, criteria, methods, and challenges of performance appraisal in public administration. It also explores the various mechanisms and tools of accountability in public administration, such as codes of conduct, ethics, discipline, grievance redressal, whistleblowing, etc.



  • Motivation and leadership in public administration: This section discusses how public employees are motivated and led to achieve organizational goals and objectives. It explores the various theories and models of motivation and leadership in public administration, such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's two-factor theory, McGregor's theory X and theory Y, Vroom's expectancy theory, Blake and Mouton's managerial grid, Likert's system theory, etc.



Chapter 5: Financial Administration




The fifth chapter of the book deals with the topic of financial administration. It covers the following topics:


  • Budgeting: concepts, types, process, and techniques: This section explains what budgeting is, why it is important for public administration, what are its main functions and objectives, and how it is done in public administration. It also discusses the different types of budgeting that are used in public administration, such as traditional budgeting, performance budgeting, program budgeting, zero-based budgeting, etc. It also describes the budget process and cycle in public administration, as well as the various techniques and tools of budgeting, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, etc.



  • Financial management: accounting, auditing, and control: This section explains how financial resources are managed in public administration. It discusses how financial transactions are recorded and reported in public administration through accounting systems and standards. It also discusses how financial performance and compliance are verified and ensured in public administration through auditing systems and standards. It also discusses how financial resources are controlled and regulated in public administration through financial rules and regulations.



  • Financial administration in Pakistan: budgetary system and reforms: This section provides an overview of the financial administration system in Pakistan. It highlights the constitutional provisions and legal framework that govern financial administration in Pakistan. It also describes the main features and components of the budgetary system in Pakistan, such as revenue budget, development budget, current expenditure, capital expenditure, etc. It also reviews the various reforms and initiatives that have been undertaken to improve financial administration in Pakistan, such as fiscal responsibility law, medium-term budgetary framework, public financial management act, etc.



Chapter 6: Administrative Law and Accountability




The sixth chapter of the book deals with the topic of administrative law and accountability. It covers the following topics:


  • Administrative law: sources, principles, and functions: This section explains what administrative law is, how it differs from other branches of law, what are its main sources and principles, and what are its main functions and objectives. It also discusses the various types of administrative law that are relevant for public administration, such as constitutional law, statutory law, common law, etc.



  • Administrative justice: administrative tribunals and judicial review: This section discusses how administrative disputes and grievances are resolved and adjudicated in public administration. It examines the role and functions of administrative tribunals and courts that deal with administrative matters, such as service tribunals, ombudsman, federal shariat court, etc. It also examines the role and functions of judicial review that oversee the legality and constitutionality of administrative actions and decisions, such as high courts, supreme court, etc.



  • Administrative accountability: mechanisms and challenges: This section discusses how administrative authorities and officials are held accountable for their actions and decisions in public administration. It explores the various mechanisms and challenges of administrative accountability in public administration, such as internal accountability, external accountability, political accountability, legal accountability, moral accountability, social accountability, etc.



Chapter 7: Public Policy and Planning




The seventh chapter of the book deals with the topic of public policy and planning. It covers the following topics:


  • Public policy: definition, types, stages, and models: This section explains what public policy is, how it differs from other types of policy, what are its main types and categories, what are its main stages and phases, and what are its main models and approaches. It also discusses the various factors and actors that influence public policy making and implementation, such as political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, etc.



  • Policy analysis and evaluation: This section discusses how public policies are analyzed and evaluated in public administration. It examines the objectives, methods, techniques, and challenges of policy analysis and evaluation in public administration. It also discusses the various criteria and indicators that are used to measure and assess the effectiveness, efficiency, equity, sustainability, etc. of public policies.



  • Planning: concepts, types, process, and techniques: This section explains what planning is, why it is important for public administration, what are its main functions and objectives, and how it is done in public administration. It also discusses the different types of planning that are used in public administration, such as strategic planning, operational planning, tactical planning, etc. It also describes the planning process and cycle in public administration, as well as the various techniques and tools of planning, such as SWOT analysis, PEST analysis, SMART objectives, etc.



Chapter 8: Development Administration




The eighth chapter of the book deals with the topic of development administration. It covers the following topics:


  • Development administration: meaning, scope, and objectives: This section explains what development administration is, how it differs from traditional administration, what are its main scope and objectives, and why it is important for developing countries like Pakistan.



  • Development administration vs traditional administration: This section compares and contrasts the features and characteristics of development administration and traditional administration. It highlights the differences between them in terms of goals, orientation, structure, functions, processes, values, etc.



  • Development administration in Pakistan: strategies and problems: This section provides an overview of the development administration system in Pakistan. It describes the main strategies and policies that have been adopted by Pakistan to achieve development goals and objectives, such as five-year plans, poverty reduction strategy papers, vision 2025, etc. It also analyzes the main problems and challenges that face development administration in Pakistan, such as political instability, corruption, inequality, terrorism, environmental degradation, etc.



Chapter 9: Local Government and Decentralization




The ninth chapter of the book deals with the topic of local government and decentralization. It covers the following topics:


  • Local government: concept, functions, and types: This section explains what local government is, how it differs from central government, what are its main functions and objectives, and what are its main types and forms. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of local government for public administration.



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  • Local government system in Pakistan: evolution and reforms: This section provides an overview of the local government system in Pakistan. It traces the evolution of local government in Pakistan from the colonial period to the present day. It also reviews the various reforms and initiatives that have been undertaken to strengthen local government in Pakistan, such as the Basic Democracies System (1959-1971), the Local Government Ordinance (1979-1988), the Local Government Plan (2000-2010), and the 18th Constitutional Amendment (2010-present).



Chapter 10: Comparative Public Administration




The tenth and final chapter of the book deals with the topic of comparative public administration. It covers the following topics:


  • Comparative public administration: definition, scope, and significance: This section explains what comparative public administration is, how it differs from other branches of public administration, what are its main scope and objectives, and why it is important for understanding and improving public administration.



  • Models of comparative public administration: Weberian, Marxist, Ecological, etc.: This section discusses the various models and frameworks that have been developed to compare and analyze public administration across different countries and regions. These include the Weberian model, the Marxist model, the Ecological model, the Developmental model, the Bureaucratic Politics model, etc.



  • Comparative study of public administration in USA, UK, China, and India: This section provides a comparative study of public administration in four major countries: USA, UK, China, and India. It compares and contrasts their administrative systems in terms of historical background, constitutional framework, political system, administrative organization, civil service system, financial administration system, administrative law and accountability system, public policy and planning system, development administration system, and local government system.



Conclusion




In this article, we have provided a comprehensive guide to one of the most popular books on public administration in Pakistan, namely Public Administration (CSS & PMS) by DR Sultan Khan. We have summarized the main points of each chapter and provided some useful tips for exam preparation. We hope that this article will help you to understand and appreciate the subject of public administration better and to ace your CSS and PMS exams.


If you want to learn more about public administration, we recommend that you read the book Public Administration (CSS & PMS) by DR Sultan Khan in full. You can also consult other books and sources on public administration, such as Public Administration: Concepts and Cases by Richard J. Stillman II, Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector by David H. Rosenbloom et al., Public Administration in Pakistan by Saeed Shafqat, etc.


Frequently Asked Questions




Here are some frequently asked questions about public administration and the book Public Administration (CSS & PMS) by DR Sultan Khan:


  • What is the difference between public administration and private administration?



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